piątek, 20 maja 2011

Glencullen, Ireland

Glencullen (Gleann Cuilinn) - a village on the outskirts of Dublin in the county of Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown, Ireland.

It is also a name for:

- areas west of the village, including buildings at the road R116: Brockey, Boranaraltry, Butter Well;
- nearby river (down from Enniskerry known as Cookstown), a tributary of the River Dargle (Irish: An Deargail);
- Name the mountain top, belonging to the Wicklow mountain range.

On the south-eastern slope of Two Rock Mountain, during archaeological work has been rediscovered megalithic tomb galeriowy the Bronze Age. This archaeological site is commonly called "Tomb of the Giants"(called Giants Grave).
The Glencullen has a menhir, wydatowany at the turn of the Neolithic and Bronze Age. The exact location of the position: 6 ° 13'0 .11 W, 53 ° 13'11 .2 N.
The pub is located in Glencullen founded by Theobald Wolfe Tone'a during the Irish uprising in 1798 (Irish Eiri Amach 1798), which was also used as a meeting place for the rebels in 1916 during the Easter Uprising.

piątek, 13 maja 2011

Southside - Dublin

Southside (Taobh Ó dheas) is not an official administrative area only area in the city of Dublin and surrounding satellite towns. The popular image of the word it describes the entire southern part of Dublin (some even) from the river Liffey until the areas of Bray (that is, wherever it reaches Dublin's public transport). To the Southside in Dublin includes all areas south of the Liffey, including many famous places such as Grafton Street, and also Temple Bar.

piątek, 6 maja 2011

Northside - Dublin

Northside (Taobh Ó Thuaidh) is an area in Dublin, Ireland bounded on the south of the River Liffey and Dublin Bay from the east. There is no limit to the area north and west, but just a common sense border, because cities are located too far away can not be seen as part of Dublin.

Northside is not an official administrative area of Dublin, however, is quite familiar term of geographical location. Translated into Polish means "north side" of the River Liffey. Northside is traditionally viewed as an area inhabited by the working class as opposed to the more extensive the southern part of Dublin's Southside, and for years comes to the rivalry between the two parts. It should be noted, however, that was not always so - for most of the eighteenth century the most exclusive part of Dublin were the areas around Parnell Square and Bolton Street, located in the north.

sobota, 2 kwietnia 2011

Modernist housing complexes in Berli

Modernist estates were the result of an innovative housing policies pursued after World War I, especially during the Weimar Republic. The policy objective was to build functional homes at an affordable price to improve the lives of people with low incomes. Were designed solar one, a five apartments with balconies, equipped with kitchens and bathrooms [2]. In the years 1924-1931 was established in Berlin, 140,000 new dwellings [3]. Particular attention was paid to the functionality of settlements, assured a well-developed public infrastructure, and numerous green areas (parks and squares). The main planners of Berlin's neighborhoods were prewar Modernist German architects Bruno Taut and Martin Wagner, of whom cooperated with the other builders, including Hans Scharoun and Walter Gropius. New residential districts Bohnsdorf, Britz, Charlottenburg Prenzlauer Berg and Wedding Reinickendorf become a model for architectural housing in the interwar period. As the first garden-city created Falkenberg (Falkenberg Gartenstadt German) project of Bruno Taut, providing 128 dwellings (1913-1916). The team consists of one-and two-storey houses of varying size and proportions. Houses are characterized by colorful facades with contrasting colors.

In the years 1924-1930 Taut functional architecture inspired by the Dutch (Jakobus Ouda) Schillerpark built housing. The team consists of two-storey houses (300 apartments) with walls of red brick with trim around the windows and balconies of brick painted white.

In the years 1925-1930 was a large housing complex for nearly two thousand homes - a huge residential complex Britz (also called Horseshoe Osiedle), developed jointly by Tauta and Martin Wagner. The estate is located in the center of a semicircular pond surrounded by multi-family building in the shape of a horseshoe.
At the end of the 20s Taut designed a large housing estate of low, three-, four-storey blocks of flats in 1500 (City-bedroom) - housing them. Carl Legien (German Wohnstadt Carl Legien). At the turn of the 20s and 30 the city has funded for the amount of 15 million marks the construction of the next two settlements in around 2600 flats: White City (Ger. Weisse Stadt) and a large residential complex Siemensstadt (German Grossiedlung Siemensstadt).

poniedziałek, 28 marca 2011

The Siemensstadt housing complex

The Great Housing Complex Siemensstadt (German Großsiedlung Siemensstadt), also housing the Ring (German Ringsiedlung) - modernist housing estate in Charlottenburg in Berlin. Erected in 1929-1931 under the direction of Hans Scharoun, then expanded existing residential Spandauer Siemensstadt. Homes in the spirit neues Bauen designed by renowned German architects of the period of the Weimar Republic: Walter Gropius, Otto Bartning, Hugo Haring, Fred Forbat and Paul Rudolf Henning. Areas around the settlements laid out Leberecht Migg.
In July 2008 the estate Siemensstadt along with five other teams modernist Berlin housing was inscribed on the UNESCO cultural heritage. The settlement grew in Charlottenburg, around the Goebelplatz in the vicinity of the Siemens companies employ 60 000 staff. Was financed by the city after Martin Wagner has been the main planner of Berlin. To work on the six selected residential architects: Hans Scharoun, Walter Gropius, Hugo Häring, Bartninga Otto, Fred and Paul Rudolph Forbata Henning.
Hans Scharoun staged here the concept of a large, loosely built estate with a large number of green belts, which became a model for housing construction after World War II. Architecture of the complex swept away with the concept of single-family houses and gardens of individual, offering a multi-storey blocks with interesting details that distinguish it from the later post-war housing estates - the facade of beige brick and unusual kidney-shaped block with balconies project Goebelstrasse Hugo Haring and sail-like metal block with balconies SHEATS Jungfernheideweg Hansa project Scharoun). In most five-story houses set in parallel rows from north to south. Particularly noteworthy is the building project Scharoun like a warship, and therefore referred to as an armored cruiser (German Panzerkreuzer).
Streets and squares named after commemorating the settlement of engineers, inventors and physicists who have contributed to the success of Siemens.

środa, 23 marca 2011

Hugo Häring

After graduated from high school in 1899, Haring began studying at the Technical University in Stuttgart (1899-1901), Skjold Neckelmann. Then he studied at the Technical University of Dresden, including in Fritz Schumacher, Hugo Hartung and Gurlitta Cornelius (1901-1902). He graduated in Stuttgart under the direction of Theodor Fischer in 1903.
In 1904, Haring moved to Hamburg, where he taught at the School of Arts and Crafts (German Kunstgewerbeschule). In the years 1915-1921 involved in the reconstruction of East Prussia. In the last three years of World War I he worked as a translator in the Balkans.
In 1921 he moved to Berlin, where in 1922 he took part in the Great Berlin Art Exhibition (Grosse Berliner Kunstausstellung German). In the 1923-1924 co-founder along with Mies van der Rohem group Zehnerring "in Berlin. From 1926 Secretary of the architectural group "Der Ring, " which he represented in 1928 at the founding meeting of the Congrès International d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM) (Engl. International Congress of Modern Architecture) in the Swiss La Sarraz.
In 1935 he took over the Berlin Reimannschule, which renamed the school "Kunst und Werk". After the bombing of the school during the war in 1943 the family moved to Biberach an der Riss. In 1946, responsible for reconstruction in the zone of French. In the years 1947-1950 associate of the Institute of Civil Engineering at the Academy of Sciences in Berlin. Since 1955 member of the Akademie der Künste.
In 1925, Haring completed his essay, "Wege zur Form", in which he outlined his thoughts on architecture - architectural form should grow from the environment and the function of the building, which was to be by a separate, individual project [2]. These considerations were in opposition to the idea of ​​universality of Mies van der Rohe, and Haring is often identified with the organic tradition of modernism, in addition to Frank Lloyd Wright and Alvar Aalto.
At the end of 1920. Twentieth century designed multi-family residential homes to the newly-emerging neighborhoods Siemensstadt Berlin and Onkel-Toms-Hütte, but new projects have been abandoned after the Nazis came to power

piątek, 18 marca 2011

Organic architecture

The direction of the modernist architecture based on the premise that architecture should be modeled in analogy to nature. It is characterized by fluid and plastic forming molds, sometimes modeled on living organisms. Organic architecture evolved from the early twentieth century, especially in the 20s and had its big boom in the 50s and 60
The author of the thesis of the analogy between architecture and nature has been operating in the first mid-nineteenth century American sculptor Horatio Greenough. He called for a departure from the straitjacket of historicism and natural shaping without binding patterns. Among the prominent architects of this topic has an analogy in Louis Sullivan, who believed that the formation of architecture is not about naddawaniu form, but the tracing. In 1896 in his book The tall office building (literally high office), wrote that life is characterized by the fact that it takes the form of the functions and the essential nature of each problem is that it contains a solution and tells them.
While functionalist modernism currents used the analogy of nature only in the ontological sense, the founder of organic architecture to imitate nature quite literally, taking care not infrequently, that architecture should become a part of nature. Hugo Häring wrote that in order to find the shape, rather than to a rigid form, we will be in harmony with nature. Proponents of organic architecture have argued that modernist architecture, as directed to human needs and based on scientific understanding of the world, must flow from the vital currents of nature, and not be on the line is drawing. Also criticized as unnatural and unnecessary stylization cubic shapes of buildings, especially if their external form przyjmowała different shape than the spatial function. Their works thus taking over the complicated shapes, but drawn from actual functional and spatial dependence. Hence, the terms are sometimes used functionalism organic or organic modernism.

poniedziałek, 7 marca 2011

Postmodernism - the characteristics, p2.

Postmodernism is the architectural style of referring to the archetype, and reminiscences. Modernist rebellion against the historical tradition has been replaced by the discovery that it is an inexhaustible source from which you can take a variety of themes. Quotes of the architecture of the former, however, did not play the same role as in the historical patterns, they are often artificially attached to the building. Postmodernism is not the kind of historicism, because it usually does not imitate a particular style, but combines freely borrowed themes from their own ideas of contemporary artists and determinants of function. Sometimes referred to as the mannerisms of modernism.
The facade of the building gives it a postmodern meaning (sometimes symbolic) and places it in an appropriate typology, with no direct connection with the distribution function. Functionalism is rejected, the architecture is treated as an art detached from reality. Ornament and symbol, and the symmetry of the return to favor. Means of shaping the architecture becomes irony, surprise, and absurdity.

piątek, 4 marca 2011

Postmodernism - the characteristics, p1.

Postmodern architecture has no single ideology. There are parallel trends in it for inclusion in the context of an object, often making eklektyzującym to historical forms, as well as the stylistic pluralism.
In postmodernism there is often disjointed treatment of form and function. Developers operate universally understood cultural codes, considering the readability of functions and the idea of building a superior value over the shaping of the functional conditions. Exterior decoration of the object is a conscious and a cap on his stylistic neutrality, and the decorated shed building (called decorated shed - an expression venturi). Opposes it modernistycznemu-duck model building, namely the relationship wyprowadzonemu models, but niezrozumiałemu. Modernist duck, which was opposed to the postmodernists often takes the form of essentially random, contrary to conditions created a cultural and recalling other content than intended (for example, some churches are associated rather with the factory). In postmodernism elevation is treated as equivalent to dress in humans. The importance of building a suitable, both the classic and newer symbols (portal, tower, pedestal, lattice, glass), sometimes formed their contrasting statement. Password modernist form follows function (Louis Sullivan), and less is more (Mies) was replaced by slogans form follows fiction and less is bore, which can be easily translated into a form of fiction and follows the less is boring. Focusing on the formal aspects of architecture, however, often leads to severe functional deficiencies.

wtorek, 1 marca 2011

The history of postmodernism, p.2

Venice Biennale in 1980, a further breakthrough in the development of postmodernism - from that moment it can be regarded as the dominant style. Postmodern tendency to reject participation of residents and exhibited functional zoning in the planning of large cities. Narrative and the desire to fragmentation in the architecture of earning more and more supporters, it also took over many artists of late modernism. At the same time, however, by Aldo van Eyck, called for poszczucia dogs [postmodernists], and Berthold Lubetkin called postmodern architecture, cross-dressing (Transvestite called architecture).
At the end of the 80s classic (historyzujący) was hailed as a dead postmodernism began to dominate the currents, such as high-tech and neomodernizm, but since the mid-90s more common, especially in commercial architecture, goes back again after a historicizing themes, in parallel with the development of deconstructionism.
Architecture of the early years of the XXI century is still based on assumptions of postmodern, while exacerbating the polarization between the developers seeking the identity of sources in history and the supporters of stylistic pluralism. Supported by new forms of computer programming (deconstructionism, blobs) still eludes classification.

sobota, 26 lutego 2011

The history of postmodernism, p.1

Postmodernism developed as a protest against modernism matured since the mid-50s created by the modern (ie, rejecting traditionalism), creators of architecture, in which the themes and historical allusions fit the specific mood, often with elements of perverse humor. In Italy, Giancarlo de Carlo and Carlo Scarpa, they were involved in the functional architecture of the local historical patterns, going far beyond the regionalization adopted in late modernism. In the United States sought to reprezentacyjności architecture and give meaning. Stiles College and Morse Eero Saarinena przywoływało mood of the medieval town, including Philip Johnson's work showed the interest of the historically used methods of shaping the space and the facade. Topics and historical references to local traditions emerged in the early 60s also in Japanese architecture.
For the correct date of birth of postmodernism can be around 1965. The breakthrough was to show the publication of Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, and Robert Venturi in Complexity and Contraddiction Architecture (Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture) and Learning from Las Vegas. Modernism was accused of lack of expression and soulless. Jacobs thought that the planning of cities should not seek to simplify the structure, but rather to organize a complicated system, venturi attached the great importance also to the wit and irony in architecture. The growing criticism of modernism had its culmination in 1972 when the demolition took place czternastopiętrowych of panel apartment in St. Louis, built twenty years ago by Minoru Yamasakiego.
In the late 70s Twentieth century post-modernism has become the dominant trend in the U.S., with a slight delay occurred in Western Europe. Prevalence of fashion for postmodernism among investors has affected the vulgarization, flattening to a commercial shell.

środa, 23 lutego 2011

Postmodernism in architecture

Postmodernism is a general trend in architecture of the turn of the twentieth and twenty-first century, following the modernism trend. Unlike modernism, postmodernism has no avant-garde ambitions and finds composin gand compiling to be the most important. Postmodern architecture is characterized by pluralism and complexity. According to postmodernists, the architecture does not need to undergo the spirit of time and technological progress, and should mainly depend on the context, mood, and finally personal preference of the architect and investor. The first person to define postmorenism was Joseph Hadnut in 1945. As far as post-modernism in a more general sense (and with reference to the postmodern philosophy) can be defined as all currents after modernism, postmodernism in the strict sense means the historicizing tendencies. The term postmodernism (or post-modernism) in this approach, such as presented by Charles Jencks (Post-Modern Architecture, 1975), was introduced into general circulation by the New York Times journalist in 1978 on the occasion of presentation of an office builidng designed by Philip Johnson.

niedziela, 20 lutego 2011

Characteristics of constructivism in architecture

In the classical constructivism were used sophisticated systems engineering, often based on one general idea, which gave room to maneuver primarily in the central structures. Voluntarily take the legs and trusses. Constructivism is characterized by analyzing the properties of materials and structural systems used by the application of computing-supported achievements of modern science. Applied architectural form was associated with the properties of the material used (steel, reinforced concrete, wood, glass). Quite often the shape of the building came from the transfer graph of bending moments on the real structure, so that the cross sections of structural elements and the quantity of material used were the smallest, yet emphasized the skills of construction engineering and artistry. In contrast to the international style of constructivism does not seek to completely abstract and uncertificated compositions, often based on the effects of additional features the contrast between heavy and light, suggesting the overcoming of gravity. Probable the Constructivist principles include the initial acquisition of anonymity architecture and industrial methods of construction, assuming Marxist social ideas. Classic constructivism emphasized the importance of the construction process, introducing archiektury elements pointing to the possibility of the continuation and expansion of the building, such as forward-space framework, poles, ceilings.

czwartek, 17 lutego 2011

History of constructivism

Constructivism in architecture was inspired by the broader phenomenon of constructivism in art, developing in Russia since 1914. For the first piece of constructivism is considered unrealized architectural design of the monument of the Third International by Vladimir Tatlin in the form of a spiral truss tower with a height over 400 meters, which were woven into the utility room in the shape of elementary solids. In the early 20s Twentieth century constructivism has become a cornerstone of modern architecture in the direction of the Soviet Union. Thanks to the efforts Lissitzky, from about 1922, constructivism has become an international phenomenon, appearing mainly in Switzerland, the Netherlands and Germany. With a group of constructivists, centered around the magazine first bard. Gegenstand. Objet and G, then ABC - Beiträge zum Bauen, was associated transiently de Stijl group. In 1928, constructivists exerted a significant influence on the initial assumptions CIAM. As a result of the Great Depression, and the control of local governments in Germany by the Nazi and right-wing parties, most constructivists withdrew in the early 30s of life, some from the radical left-style, and some continued activity in the USSR.

poniedziałek, 14 lutego 2011


a style in architecture which is characterized by emphasis on design features of a building, based on the theory that the object of aesthetic values determined logically applied and properly determined its structure. One of the main lines of modernist architecture, growing up in the 20s and 30 Twentieth century, mainly in the Soviet Union and other European countries. In a broader sense of constructivism is said with respect to any architectural works that highlight the structure in its actual form design. Since the beginning of the nineteenth century with the characteristics of constructivist objects were made in connection with the new tasks facing stood architecture, primarily in the industrial and communication. At that time, most architects are not dealt with the structure, leaving the newly-formed task professional engineer. In the twentieth century, close collaboration between architect and designer has become more important - so objects can be created with design and aesthetics are not in contradiction to each other.

Secession architecture

Art Nouveau was an attempt to create a new style without reference to history, but only on the basis of aesthetic motivation and inspiration to the creator. This way of creating met with strong criticism of many contemporary, emphasizing that the earlier styles were created in other ways - allegedly by way of evolution resulting from environmental factors. Art Nouveau was characterized by a relatively abstract form, but also with rich ornamentation. In addition to leading architects, designating the direction of development, the style was limited essentially to the ornamentation, the case features and design engineers leaving the building. This is particularly evident in housing, where the solution to urban and housing projections remain consistent with the practice of the nineteenth century public buildings, but showing the innovation, use of romantic themes and elements of both the Neo-Romanesque and neo-gothic. Awe of nature was reflected in the ornamentation and structure of the building. Ornament Art Nouveau was not only emphasize the structure and tectonics of the building, but also provide a symbolic representation of its functions. Among the Art Nouveau ornaments appear stylized plant forms, figures and masks, long-haired women, sometimes resembling the form of wall hangings or the skin, relieves sometimes fill the entire surface of the outer walls. Elevations are continuous and smooth surface passing, it is apparent fondness for soft lines and curves and wyobleń. Ornament also includes details of building finishes, such as door handles and stair railings.

piątek, 11 lutego 2011

Decline of Art Nouveau

At the end of the second decade of the twentieth century appears, especially in the architecture department stores, Reducing the variety of secession, in which great przeszkleniom and planes accompanied by a relatively simple and rigorously deployed pilasters, and the ornament is focused on the top and the entrance to the building. After 1918, art nouveau architecture is gradually disappearing, merging with the eclectic style in 1920, which combines classicism, Neo-baroque and early modernism.
After World War I art nouveau that had previously seemed an anachronism, met almost exclusively with severe criticism from the contemporary avant-garde. Many architects who created the first Art Nouveau, it has become radical followers of functionalism.
Secession in comparison with other styles was merely an episode in the history of architecture, but led to permanent transformation in the understanding of the role of architecture and design process.

wtorek, 8 lutego 2011

Sources of Art Nouveau

The earliest a tendency to sublimate a new style emerged in France, partly under the influence of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Viollet-le-Duc. Some trace the sources of Art Nouveau in the presented by him and by the Englishman William Morris's Gothic Revival variant. Further factors that initiated the development of a new architecture were rational and philosophical currents encounter with Japanese graphics and calligraphy. Avant-garde tendency to progress was to base ethical. Stylistic heterogeneity of the initial secession was derived from the fact that it was the intellectual ground, not a formal art. Secession was the result of culture of his time.

sobota, 5 lutego 2011

Art Nouveau

Period of Art Nouveau in architecture is defined very differently in different countries, but called him almost simultaneously with the formation of style. The popular name of secession is usead in Austria (Sezession) and Poland (Secesja) and is derived from the names of groups of artists: Secession Vienna and Munich. In Germany and the Nordic countries is used, rather the name of Jugendstil (youth style), French Art Nouveau (new art), in Spain and Italy, said about modernismo (not to be confused with modernism). In Britain, a new style of artistic movement promoted the Arts and Crafts. All these local currents of concern but in general, judging from the perspective of twenty-first century, one phenomenon.

wtorek, 1 lutego 2011


Secession as a direction in architecture developed in the years 1899-1925, but major bloom lasted from about 1905. In Poland, the secession took a little earlier than in most European countries, mainly due to the influence of German architecture, Austrian and French. These countries first developed the style, and Poland being under the influence of acquired new trends very quickly, faster than the rest of Europe. Faster also departed from this style in favor of modernism. Most importantly, however, that there developed a typical Art Nouveau style, and buildings from this period are more like Neo-baroque. Secession was the result of search of the liberation of building form from pure imitation of past epochs (historicism) and make a new style.

czwartek, 27 stycznia 2011

History of design

The history of design in today's sense begins in the Baroque period, when it worked the first prominent artists-called ebenistami carpenters and the first two hundred years has been the history of furniture and wnętrzarstwa. The prevailing style is called today by the great historical styles, or from the names of monarchs (style definitions appear in the history of art is always after the fact.) The main styles with similar characteristics were in various European countries and America have different names, there were more or less simultaneously, and enriched by the regional variations were sometimes shaped the local tradition and historical conditions.

wtorek, 25 stycznia 2011

Glasgow Architecture

Architecture of Glasgow is one of the most interesting examples in the UK urbandevelopment. Deserve the admiration of both restored eighteenth-century warehouses and stores of the Merchant City and the majestic buildings around George Square, built in the Victorian era of prosperity. The most unique architectural structures designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh, the original Art Nouveau decorations adornthe townfacade, led by the renowned School of Art Other outstanding works of this artist, the seat of Glasgow Herald, became the center of the Festival of Architecture and Designas as well as an orientation point for all visitors who visited this occasion in Glasgow.

czwartek, 20 stycznia 2011

What is popular in France?

Isn't it interesting what people in particular countries like? Then there is no better way (in my opinion) that to see how the statistics of Facebook pages look. I was looking for a reliable ranking as I was interested in France. What people in France really like, I asked. Surely, we know they like wine, and cheese, and baguettes. But what when it comes to music for example. This French Facebook page ranking helped me. For example the most popular Facebook page in the French language is Daft Punk, followed by Remi Gaillard and Chanel. I suppose that gives me a good idea already what is really popular in France!

czwartek, 13 stycznia 2011

Building a Bungalow

When we begin to build a bungalow, we must first check whether our land, the chosen model will suffice. It must demonstrate a sufficient size, because the bungalows are inherently shady. When building a bungalow, you must be sure that once it is ready it will fit perfectly into the surrounding landscape. Decorations can be fitted to the terraces and a beautiful garden full of flowers will be a nice addition.

wtorek, 4 stycznia 2011

Baroque Architecture in England

English Baroque, as in many other Protestant countries, belongs to the mainstream of classical, inspired by classical art and architecture of Palladio and Vignoli. British historians used to divide and name the changing architectural styles differently to the ones on the continent. In their view, up to half of the eighteenth century is one of the late Renaissance and not Baroque.
The transition from the Renaissance to the Baroque had a very mild form. Works of the late Renaissance and Baroque were characterized by severe, dense solid with symmetric, structured facades. Only the detail reveals that it is a different era. Crowning domes, attics, border portals, dormers, cartouches and medallions feature a bit more sculpting, creative form. Despite this exception is the southern portal of the project spiral shafts of columns. Portal designed by Nicholas Stone was added in 1637, the university church of St. Mary in Oxford.