sobota, 26 lutego 2011

The history of postmodernism, p.1

Postmodernism developed as a protest against modernism matured since the mid-50s created by the modern (ie, rejecting traditionalism), creators of architecture, in which the themes and historical allusions fit the specific mood, often with elements of perverse humor. In Italy, Giancarlo de Carlo and Carlo Scarpa, they were involved in the functional architecture of the local historical patterns, going far beyond the regionalization adopted in late modernism. In the United States sought to reprezentacyjności architecture and give meaning. Stiles College and Morse Eero Saarinena przywoływało mood of the medieval town, including Philip Johnson's work showed the interest of the historically used methods of shaping the space and the facade. Topics and historical references to local traditions emerged in the early 60s also in Japanese architecture.
For the correct date of birth of postmodernism can be around 1965. The breakthrough was to show the publication of Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, and Robert Venturi in Complexity and Contraddiction Architecture (Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture) and Learning from Las Vegas. Modernism was accused of lack of expression and soulless. Jacobs thought that the planning of cities should not seek to simplify the structure, but rather to organize a complicated system, venturi attached the great importance also to the wit and irony in architecture. The growing criticism of modernism had its culmination in 1972 when the demolition took place czternastopiętrowych of panel apartment in St. Louis, built twenty years ago by Minoru Yamasakiego.
In the late 70s Twentieth century post-modernism has become the dominant trend in the U.S., with a slight delay occurred in Western Europe. Prevalence of fashion for postmodernism among investors has affected the vulgarization, flattening to a commercial shell.

środa, 23 lutego 2011

Postmodernism in architecture

Postmodernism is a general trend in architecture of the turn of the twentieth and twenty-first century, following the modernism trend. Unlike modernism, postmodernism has no avant-garde ambitions and finds composin gand compiling to be the most important. Postmodern architecture is characterized by pluralism and complexity. According to postmodernists, the architecture does not need to undergo the spirit of time and technological progress, and should mainly depend on the context, mood, and finally personal preference of the architect and investor. The first person to define postmorenism was Joseph Hadnut in 1945. As far as post-modernism in a more general sense (and with reference to the postmodern philosophy) can be defined as all currents after modernism, postmodernism in the strict sense means the historicizing tendencies. The term postmodernism (or post-modernism) in this approach, such as presented by Charles Jencks (Post-Modern Architecture, 1975), was introduced into general circulation by the New York Times journalist in 1978 on the occasion of presentation of an office builidng designed by Philip Johnson.

niedziela, 20 lutego 2011

Characteristics of constructivism in architecture

In the classical constructivism were used sophisticated systems engineering, often based on one general idea, which gave room to maneuver primarily in the central structures. Voluntarily take the legs and trusses. Constructivism is characterized by analyzing the properties of materials and structural systems used by the application of computing-supported achievements of modern science. Applied architectural form was associated with the properties of the material used (steel, reinforced concrete, wood, glass). Quite often the shape of the building came from the transfer graph of bending moments on the real structure, so that the cross sections of structural elements and the quantity of material used were the smallest, yet emphasized the skills of construction engineering and artistry. In contrast to the international style of constructivism does not seek to completely abstract and uncertificated compositions, often based on the effects of additional features the contrast between heavy and light, suggesting the overcoming of gravity. Probable the Constructivist principles include the initial acquisition of anonymity architecture and industrial methods of construction, assuming Marxist social ideas. Classic constructivism emphasized the importance of the construction process, introducing archiektury elements pointing to the possibility of the continuation and expansion of the building, such as forward-space framework, poles, ceilings.

czwartek, 17 lutego 2011

History of constructivism

Constructivism in architecture was inspired by the broader phenomenon of constructivism in art, developing in Russia since 1914. For the first piece of constructivism is considered unrealized architectural design of the monument of the Third International by Vladimir Tatlin in the form of a spiral truss tower with a height over 400 meters, which were woven into the utility room in the shape of elementary solids. In the early 20s Twentieth century constructivism has become a cornerstone of modern architecture in the direction of the Soviet Union. Thanks to the efforts Lissitzky, from about 1922, constructivism has become an international phenomenon, appearing mainly in Switzerland, the Netherlands and Germany. With a group of constructivists, centered around the magazine first bard. Gegenstand. Objet and G, then ABC - Beiträge zum Bauen, was associated transiently de Stijl group. In 1928, constructivists exerted a significant influence on the initial assumptions CIAM. As a result of the Great Depression, and the control of local governments in Germany by the Nazi and right-wing parties, most constructivists withdrew in the early 30s of life, some from the radical left-style, and some continued activity in the USSR.

poniedziałek, 14 lutego 2011


a style in architecture which is characterized by emphasis on design features of a building, based on the theory that the object of aesthetic values determined logically applied and properly determined its structure. One of the main lines of modernist architecture, growing up in the 20s and 30 Twentieth century, mainly in the Soviet Union and other European countries. In a broader sense of constructivism is said with respect to any architectural works that highlight the structure in its actual form design. Since the beginning of the nineteenth century with the characteristics of constructivist objects were made in connection with the new tasks facing stood architecture, primarily in the industrial and communication. At that time, most architects are not dealt with the structure, leaving the newly-formed task professional engineer. In the twentieth century, close collaboration between architect and designer has become more important - so objects can be created with design and aesthetics are not in contradiction to each other.

Secession architecture

Art Nouveau was an attempt to create a new style without reference to history, but only on the basis of aesthetic motivation and inspiration to the creator. This way of creating met with strong criticism of many contemporary, emphasizing that the earlier styles were created in other ways - allegedly by way of evolution resulting from environmental factors. Art Nouveau was characterized by a relatively abstract form, but also with rich ornamentation. In addition to leading architects, designating the direction of development, the style was limited essentially to the ornamentation, the case features and design engineers leaving the building. This is particularly evident in housing, where the solution to urban and housing projections remain consistent with the practice of the nineteenth century public buildings, but showing the innovation, use of romantic themes and elements of both the Neo-Romanesque and neo-gothic. Awe of nature was reflected in the ornamentation and structure of the building. Ornament Art Nouveau was not only emphasize the structure and tectonics of the building, but also provide a symbolic representation of its functions. Among the Art Nouveau ornaments appear stylized plant forms, figures and masks, long-haired women, sometimes resembling the form of wall hangings or the skin, relieves sometimes fill the entire surface of the outer walls. Elevations are continuous and smooth surface passing, it is apparent fondness for soft lines and curves and wyobleń. Ornament also includes details of building finishes, such as door handles and stair railings.

piątek, 11 lutego 2011

Decline of Art Nouveau

At the end of the second decade of the twentieth century appears, especially in the architecture department stores, Reducing the variety of secession, in which great przeszkleniom and planes accompanied by a relatively simple and rigorously deployed pilasters, and the ornament is focused on the top and the entrance to the building. After 1918, art nouveau architecture is gradually disappearing, merging with the eclectic style in 1920, which combines classicism, Neo-baroque and early modernism.
After World War I art nouveau that had previously seemed an anachronism, met almost exclusively with severe criticism from the contemporary avant-garde. Many architects who created the first Art Nouveau, it has become radical followers of functionalism.
Secession in comparison with other styles was merely an episode in the history of architecture, but led to permanent transformation in the understanding of the role of architecture and design process.

wtorek, 8 lutego 2011

Sources of Art Nouveau

The earliest a tendency to sublimate a new style emerged in France, partly under the influence of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Viollet-le-Duc. Some trace the sources of Art Nouveau in the presented by him and by the Englishman William Morris's Gothic Revival variant. Further factors that initiated the development of a new architecture were rational and philosophical currents encounter with Japanese graphics and calligraphy. Avant-garde tendency to progress was to base ethical. Stylistic heterogeneity of the initial secession was derived from the fact that it was the intellectual ground, not a formal art. Secession was the result of culture of his time.

sobota, 5 lutego 2011

Art Nouveau

Period of Art Nouveau in architecture is defined very differently in different countries, but called him almost simultaneously with the formation of style. The popular name of secession is usead in Austria (Sezession) and Poland (Secesja) and is derived from the names of groups of artists: Secession Vienna and Munich. In Germany and the Nordic countries is used, rather the name of Jugendstil (youth style), French Art Nouveau (new art), in Spain and Italy, said about modernismo (not to be confused with modernism). In Britain, a new style of artistic movement promoted the Arts and Crafts. All these local currents of concern but in general, judging from the perspective of twenty-first century, one phenomenon.

wtorek, 1 lutego 2011


Secession as a direction in architecture developed in the years 1899-1925, but major bloom lasted from about 1905. In Poland, the secession took a little earlier than in most European countries, mainly due to the influence of German architecture, Austrian and French. These countries first developed the style, and Poland being under the influence of acquired new trends very quickly, faster than the rest of Europe. Faster also departed from this style in favor of modernism. Most importantly, however, that there developed a typical Art Nouveau style, and buildings from this period are more like Neo-baroque. Secession was the result of search of the liberation of building form from pure imitation of past epochs (historicism) and make a new style.